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Posts Tagged ‘XML Encryption’

What Security Vendors Said One Year Ago…

January 10, 2012 2 comments

I did not resist, so after publishing the summary of Security Predictions for 2012, I checked out what security vendors predicted one year ago for 2011. Exactly as I did in my previous post, at the beginning of 2011 I collected the security predictions in a similar post (in Italian). I also published in May an update (in English) since, during the Check Point Experience in Barcelona held in May 2011, the Israeli security firm published its predictions. Even if the latters have been published nearly at the half of 2011, for the sake of completeness, I decided to insert them as well in this year-to-year comparison.

Then, I included Symantec (for which this year I did not find any prediction), McAfee, Trend Micro, Kaspersky, Sophos and Cisco. I included Check Point in a second time and I did not include Fortinet, At that time I missed their five security predictions, which I only discovered later so I decided to provide an addendum for this post including Fortinet as well in order to provide a deeper perspective.

The security predictions for 2011 are summarized in the following chart, which reports what the vendors (with the partial above described exception of Checkpoint) expected for the past year in terms of Information Security trends.

But a strict side-by-side comparison with the 2012 information security predictions (extracted by my previous post) is more helpful and meaningful:

As you may notice mobile threats were on top even among the predictions for 2011. This prediction came easily true most of all for Android which suffered (and keeps on suffering) a huge increase in malware detection samples (even if the overall security risk remains contained). Social Media were on top as well: they have been crucial for the Wind of the Changes blown by the Arab Spring but in the same time Social Media have raised many security concerns for reputation, the so called Social Network Poisoning (who remembers Primoris Era?). Although 2011 was the year of the Anonymous, hacktvism ranked “only” at number 4, behind Advanced Persistent Threats, which however played a crucial role for information security (an APT was deployed for the infamous RSA Breach, but it was not an isolated case).

Also botnets, web threats and application vulnerabilities ranked at the top of Security predictions for last year (and came true). As far as botnets are concerned, fortunately 2011 was a very important year for their shutdown (for instance Hlux/Kelihos, Coreflood, Rustock). In several cases the botnets were taken down thanks to joint operations between private sectors and law enforcement agencies (another prediction came true). On the application side, this prediction came true most of all thanks to the Sony breach, the Liza Moon infection and the huge rate of SQLi based attacks and ASP.NET vulnerabilities. We have also assisted to an hard blow to SSL/TLS and XML Encryption.

But what is more surprising (and amusing) in my opinion is not to emphasize which predictions were correct, but rather to notice  which predictions were dramatically wrong: it looks like that, against the predictions, virtualization threats were snubbed by cybercrookers in 2011 (and nearly do not appear in 2012). But the most amusing fact is that no security vendor (among the ones analyzed) was able to predict the collapse of the Certification Authority model thanks most of all to the Comodo and Diginotar Breaches.

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XML Encryption Cracked!

October 23, 2011 3 comments

Broken CBC XMLWe have not completely assimilated the BEAST vulnerability, and here it comes, from Bochum, Germany, another serious flaw involving Encryption, or better, involving XML Encryption.

XML Encryption, is a W3C standard widely used to securely transmit information inside Application-to-Application Web services connections. It was believed to be a robust standard mechanism to protect data exchange between a wide class of applications using web services and deployed in different sectors, for instance business, e-commerce, financial, healthcare, governmental and military applications. For the generic user a typical scenario involves, for example, credit card information encryption for a payment within an XML-based purchase order.

Unfortunately it lools like the mechanism is not so robust as it was supposed to be, and the discovery comes from Juraj Somorovsky and Tibor Jager, two Researchers at the Ruhr University of Bochum (RUB) who were successful in cracking parts of the XML encryption process used in web services, thus making it possible to decrypt encrypted data. They demonstrated their work at the ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security in Chicago this week.

As far as the attack technique is concerned, once again CBC (Cipher-Block Chaining) is indicted since the new discovered vulnerability, as in case of the BEAST attack, is exploitable only in this encryption mode.

The attack strategy seems very similar to the one behind the BEAST Attack and allows to decrypt data, encrypted in AES-CBC, by sending modified ciphertexts to the server, and gathering information from the received error messages using the cryptographic weakness of the CBC mode, in particular the fact that, by conveniently manipulating the IV, ciphertexts encrypted in CBC mode can be modified so that the resulting ciphertext is related to the original ciphertext in a certain way (see the description of the BEAST attack for an example).

So, by choosing a given ciphertext, the attacker is able to recover the entire plaintext and the only prerequisite requires the availability of what the researchers define an “oracle”, that is a pattern telling the attacker if a given ciphertext contains a “correctly formed” plaintext that is a valid encoding (e.g. in UTF-8 or ASCII) of a message. Even worse XML signature is not able to mitigate the attack.

In their paper the authors showed that a moderately optimized implementation of the attack was able to decrypt 160 bytes of encrypted data within 10 seconds by issuing 2,137 queries to the Web Service, morever the complexity of the attack grows only linearly with the ciphertext size, thus allowing to recover a larger plaintext of 1,600 bytes takes about 100 seconds and 23,000 queries.

The proof of concept has been performed on a Web Service based on the Apache Axis2 XML framework and verified on JBoss, but many other vendors are affected, that is the reason why the two researchers announced the vulnerability to the W3C XML Encryption Working Group in February 2011. Vendors affected include the above mentioned Apache Software Foundation (Apache Axis2), RedHat Linux (JBoss), but also IBM and Microsoft.

Unfortunately fixing the flaw will not be that easy, the only suitable way is to replace CBC mode by using a symmetric cryptographic primitive providing confidentiality and integrity, this means to change the XML Encryption standard!

The 2011

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