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Posts Tagged ‘Trend Micro’

Exclusive Infographic: All Cyber Attacks on Military Aviation and Aerospace Industry

February 22, 2012 2 comments

Cross Posted from TheAviationist.

2011 has been an annus horribilis for information security, and aviation has not been an exception to this rule: not only in 2011 the corporate networks of several aviation and aerospace industries have been targeted by digital storms (not a surprise in the so-called hackmageddon) but, above all, last year will be probably remembered for the unwelcome record of two alleged hacking events targeting drones (“alleged” because in the RQ-170 Sentinel downed in Iran episode, several doubts surround the theory according to which GPS hacking could have been the real cause of the crash landing).

But, if Information Security professionals are quite familiar with the idea that military contractors could be primary and preferred targets of the current Cyberwar, as the infographic on the left shows, realizing that malware can be used to target a drone is still considered an isolated episode, and even worse, the idea of a malware targeting, for instance, the multirole Joint Strike Fighter is still something hard to accept.

However, things are about change dramatically. And quickly.

The reason is simple: the latest military and civil airplanes are literally full of electronics, which play a primary role in managing avionics, onboard systems, flight surfaces, communcation equipment and armament.

For instance an F-22 Raptor owns about 1.7 millions od line of codes , an F-35 Joint Strike Fighter about 5.7 millions and a Boeing 787 Dreamliner about 6.5 millions. Everything with some built in code may be exploited, therefore, with plenty of code and much current and future vulnerabilities, one may not rule out a priori that these systems will be targeted with specific tailored or generic malware for Cyberwar, Cybercrime, or even hacktivism purposes.

Unfortunately it looks like the latter hypothesis is closer to reality since too often these systems are managed by standard Windows operating systems, and as a matter of fact a generic malware has proven to be capable to infect the most important U.S. robots flying in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Libya, and Indian Ocean: Predator and Reaper Drones.

As a consequence, it should not be surprising, nor it is a coincidence, that McAfee, Sophos and Trend Micro, three leading players for Endpoint Security, consider the embedded systems as one of the main security concerns for 2012.

Making networks more secure (and personnel more educated) to prevent the leak of mission critical documents and costly project plans (as happened in at least a couple of circumstances) will not be aviation and aerospace industry’s information security challenge; the real challenge will be to embrace the security-by-design paradigm and make secure and malware-proof products ab initio.

While you wait to see if an endpoint security solution becomes available for an F-35, scroll down the image below and enjoy the list of aviation and aerospace related cyber attacks occurred since the very first hack targeting the F-35 Lightning II in 2009.

Of course aviation and aerospace industries are not the only targets for hackers and cybercriminals. So, if you want to have an idea of how fragile our data are inside the cyberspace, have a look at the timelines of the main Cyber Attacks in 2011 and 2012 (regularly updated) at hackmageddon.com. And follow @pausparrows on Twitter for the latest updates.

As usual the references are after the jump…

Read more…

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What Security Vendors Said One Year Ago…

January 10, 2012 2 comments

I did not resist, so after publishing the summary of Security Predictions for 2012, I checked out what security vendors predicted one year ago for 2011. Exactly as I did in my previous post, at the beginning of 2011 I collected the security predictions in a similar post (in Italian). I also published in May an update (in English) since, during the Check Point Experience in Barcelona held in May 2011, the Israeli security firm published its predictions. Even if the latters have been published nearly at the half of 2011, for the sake of completeness, I decided to insert them as well in this year-to-year comparison.

Then, I included Symantec (for which this year I did not find any prediction), McAfee, Trend Micro, Kaspersky, Sophos and Cisco. I included Check Point in a second time and I did not include Fortinet, At that time I missed their five security predictions, which I only discovered later so I decided to provide an addendum for this post including Fortinet as well in order to provide a deeper perspective.

The security predictions for 2011 are summarized in the following chart, which reports what the vendors (with the partial above described exception of Checkpoint) expected for the past year in terms of Information Security trends.

But a strict side-by-side comparison with the 2012 information security predictions (extracted by my previous post) is more helpful and meaningful:

As you may notice mobile threats were on top even among the predictions for 2011. This prediction came easily true most of all for Android which suffered (and keeps on suffering) a huge increase in malware detection samples (even if the overall security risk remains contained). Social Media were on top as well: they have been crucial for the Wind of the Changes blown by the Arab Spring but in the same time Social Media have raised many security concerns for reputation, the so called Social Network Poisoning (who remembers Primoris Era?). Although 2011 was the year of the Anonymous, hacktvism ranked “only” at number 4, behind Advanced Persistent Threats, which however played a crucial role for information security (an APT was deployed for the infamous RSA Breach, but it was not an isolated case).

Also botnets, web threats and application vulnerabilities ranked at the top of Security predictions for last year (and came true). As far as botnets are concerned, fortunately 2011 was a very important year for their shutdown (for instance Hlux/Kelihos, Coreflood, Rustock). In several cases the botnets were taken down thanks to joint operations between private sectors and law enforcement agencies (another prediction came true). On the application side, this prediction came true most of all thanks to the Sony breach, the Liza Moon infection and the huge rate of SQLi based attacks and ASP.NET vulnerabilities. We have also assisted to an hard blow to SSL/TLS and XML Encryption.

But what is more surprising (and amusing) in my opinion is not to emphasize which predictions were correct, but rather to notice  which predictions were dramatically wrong: it looks like that, against the predictions, virtualization threats were snubbed by cybercrookers in 2011 (and nearly do not appear in 2012). But the most amusing fact is that no security vendor (among the ones analyzed) was able to predict the collapse of the Certification Authority model thanks most of all to the Comodo and Diginotar Breaches.

Browsing Security Predictions for 2012

January 8, 2012 4 comments

Update 01/11/2012: Year-to-Tear comparison with 2011 Security Predictions

The new year has just come, vacations are over, and, as usually happens in this period, information security professionals use to wonder what the new year will bring them from an infosec perspective. The last year has been rich of events, whose echo is still resounding, and as a consequence, if RSA and Sony breach were not enough, the main (and somehow obvious) question is: will 2012 stop this trend or rather bring it to unprecedented levels, or, in other words, which threat vectors will disturb the (already troubled) administrators’ sleep?

Unfortunately my divination skills are not so developed (in that case I would not be here), but security firms can give a crucial help since they started to unveil their security predictions for 2012, at least since the half of December, so putting them together, and analyzing them is quite a straightforward and amusing task. Maybe even more amusing will be, in twelve years, to see if they were correct or not.

The security prediction that I take into consideration included, at my sole discretion (and in rigorous alphabetical order):

•    Cisco;
•    Fortinet;
•    Kaspersky;
•    McAfee;
•    Sophos;
•    Trend Micro;
•    Websense;

That is the only leader vendors for which I found predictions issued with original documents (feel free to indicate if I missed someone and I will be very glad to include them in the chart).

In any case, the landscape is quite heterogeneous since it encompasses security vendors covering different areas: one vendor, McAfee, covering all the areas (network, endpoint and content security), two vendors and one half focused on network and content security (Cisco, Fortinet and partially Sophos thanks to the Astaro acquisition), and two vendors focused essentially on endpoint security (Kaspersky and Trend Micro).

The following table summarizes their predictions:

In order to correctly understand the chart a premise is needed: as you will probably have already noticed, in several cases the predictions reflect the specific security focus for the analyzed vendor. For instance, Websense is focused on DLP, and that is the reason why the adoption of DLP is one of its predictions. Analogously McAfee is investing huge resources for Security on Silicon, and this implies that embedded systems and Malware Moving Beyond OS are present among its predictions. Same speech could be applied for Trend Micro and its Cloud Prediction and so on.

Some trends for this year are clearly emphasized: easily predictable Hactivism appears on 6 of the 7 vendors, as mobile (with different connotations) does. Social Media is on the spot as well as are SCADA, Embedded Systems and, quite surprisingly in my opinion, cloud. I would have expected a greater impact for APTs, but for a complete and more accurate analysis one should consider them together with threats targeting embedded systems or ICS. Even because according to several security firms, for instance Kasperky, APT Stuxnet-like will be used for tailored campaigns, whilst more “general purpose malware”, including botnets will be used for massive campaigns (this item is summarized as Mass Targeted Campaigns).

 

Some “old acquaintances” will be with us in 2012: consumerization, at least according to Sophos and Trend Micro (even if consumerization is strictly connected, if not overlapped with mobile) and, if the Comodo and Diginotar affaires were not enough, Rogue Certificates, according to McAfee. Instead some “new entries” are absolutely interesting, such as the threats related to NFC (even if in this case I would have expected a greater impact) or related to Virtual Currency. Besides let us hope that the prediction to adopt DNSSEC be more than a prediction but a consolidated practice.

The most conservative security firm? In my opinion Cisco. The most “visionary”? Maybe Fortinet, I found the “Crime as a Service (CaaS)” absolutely awesome, and most of all not so visionary, since there are already some (even if clumsy) attempts.

In any case with this plenty of Cyber Nightmares is not a surprise the fact the Enterprise security market is going to reach $23 billion worldwide in 2012 with a 8.7% growth year-on-year.

An Industry Wide Attack

September 9, 2011 3 comments

9/9/2011: Globalsign admitted evidence of a breach to the web server hosting the www website:

Today we found evidence of a breach to the web server hosting the www website. The breached web server has always been isolated from all other infrastructure and is used only to serve the http://www.globalsign.com website. At present there is no further evidence of breach other than the isolated www web server. As an additional precaution, we continue to monitor all activity to all services closely. The investigation and high threat approach to returning services to normal continues.

Starting from March 2011, one might say that the authentication bastions have been crumbling one after another. In hindsight, one event in particular occurred during March 2011 has been mostly underestimated. Of course I am not referring to the RSA affair, but to the Comodo Hack, whose only blame was to happen too close in time to the RSA Breach, which ended up obfuscating its impact for the Information Security Landscape … At least until August 2011.

As a matter of fact when, immediately after the Comodo Hack, the so called Comodo Hacker published on pastebin his declaration of Cyberwar, no one considered the hypothesis that other Certification Authorities could have been equally compromised. Consequently, although the hack was classified as a serious cyberattack, driven by a political matrix and capable to establish a new (unwelcome) record, it was considered an isolated episode, mainly due to the scarce attention to application security by the targeted Comodo partner. Moreover the final target (Google) and the political reasons behind the attack deserved much more attention than the means used to perpetrate the attack itself: the first-time compromission of a Certification Authority, a completely inedited attack vector.

Nearly four months later, the Diginotar hack (again an attack with alleged political reasons behind although according to Trend Micro it targeted Iranian Internet users) has shown to the world the weaknesses of our authentication model and its chain of trust. Not only the hacker was able to forge more than 500 fake Code Sign and SSL certificates, but he also claimed to have access to other four CAs, quoting explicitly GlobalSign, and indirectly another one StartCom, which was able to avoid the hack since its CEO was sitting in front of the HSM during the attack, although the Comodo Hacker claims to own email, DB Backup and Customer data.

Trust in Diginotar Certificate Authority has been revoked from all browsers and OSes, permanently from all Mozilla Products, but not from Smartphones, with heavy consequences for the Dutch government’s PKIoverheid (PKIgovernment) program. Of course, easily predictable, the assertions from Comodo Hacker triggered panic between cert providers. On September the 6th GlobalSign decided to temporary cease issuance of all certificates as a precautionary measure and appointed Fox-IT to perform an intensive audit (Fox-IT is the same Dutch Cybsersecurity Company which performed the audit on Diginotar); on September the 7th Symantec released a statement to reassure their customers their infrastructure has been audited and it is not compromised. A similar announcement has been published by Thawte after an erroneous report from a Dutch Government agency according to which the Security firm had been breached. Unfortunately the story does not end here and although the Comodo Hacker promises further disclosures.

If I can spend few words on the question, the best way to describe it is to quote a statement from GlobalSign: “these claims (from Comodo Hacker) represent an industry wide attack”. Said in simple words: the aftermaths of the Diginotar hack will force to rethink the current authentication model and chain of trust (even because authentication technologies and vendors are increasingly tied) even if we seriously risk to run out of ammo: in this year we lost tokens and CAs… Now What Else?

One Year Of Android Malware (Full List)

August 11, 2011 30 comments

Update August 14: After the list (and the subsequent turmoil) here is the Look Inside a Year Of Android Malware.

So here it is the full list of Android Malware in a very dangerous year, since August, the 9th 2011 up-to-today.

My birthday gift for the Android is complete: exactly One year ago (9 August 2010) Kaspersky discovered the first SMS Trojan for Android in the Wild dubbed SMS.AndroidOS.FakePlayer.a. This is considered a special date for the Google Mobile OS, since, before then, Android Malware was a litte bit more than en exercise of Style, essentially focused on Spyware. After that everything changed, and mobile malware targeting the Android OS become more and more sophisticated.

Scroll down my special compilation showing the long malware trail which characterized this hard days for information security. Commenting the graph, in my opinion, probably the turning point was Android.Geinimi (end of 2010), featuring the characteristics of a primordial Botnet, but also Android.DroidDream (AKA RootCager) is worthwhile to mention because of its capability to root the phone and potentially to remotely install applications without direct user intervention.

As you will notice, the average impact is low, but, the number of malware is growing exponentially reaching a huge peak in July.

Let’s go in this mobile malware travel between botnets, sleepwalkers, biblic plagues and call Hijackers, and meanwhile do not forget to read my presentation on how to implement a secure mobile strategy.

Date Description Features Overall Risk
Aug 9 2010
SMS.AndroidOS.FakePlayer.a

First SMS Android Malware In the Wild: The malicious program penetrates Android devices in the guise of a harmless media player application. Once manually installed on the phone, the Trojan uses the system to begin sending SMSs to premium rate numbers without the owner’s knowledge or consent, resulting in money passing from a user’s account to that of the cybercriminals.

Aug 17 2010 AndroidOS_Droisnake.A

This is the first GPS Spy Malware disguised as an Android Snake game application. To the victim, Tap Snake looks like a clone of the Snake game. However, once someone installs this app on a phone, the “game” serves as a front for a spy app that proceeds to run in the background, secretly reporting GPS coordinates back to a server. The would-be spy then pays for and downloads an app called GPS Spy and enters an email address and code to gain access to the victim’s uploaded data.

Android MarketGPS Spy
Sep 14 2010 SMS.AndroidOS.FakePlayer.b

Pornography lands on Android! This malware is a variant of SMS.AndroidOS.FakePlayer.A. The malware poses as a pornographic application whose package name is pornoplayer.apk, and it installs on the phone with a pornographic icon. When the user launches the application, the malware does not show any adult content and, instead, sends 4 SMS messages to short codes, at the end-user’s expense.

Oct 13 2010
SMS.AndroidOS.FakePlayer.c

Pornography back on Android! Third variant of the malware SMS.AndroidOS.FakePlayer.A. New pornographic application, old icon. Sends 2 SMS messages to short codes, at the end-user’s expense.

Dec 29 2010
Android.Geinimi

First example of a Botnet-Like Malware on Android. “Grafted” onto repackaged versions of legitimate applications, primarily games, and distributed in third-party Chinese Android app markets. Once the malware is installed on a user’s phone, it has the potential to receive commands from a remote server that allow the owner of that server to control the phone. The specific information it collects includes location coordinates and unique identifiers for the device (IMEI) and SIM card (IMSI).

Botnet Like Features
Feb 14 2011
Android.Adrd AKA Android.HongTouTou

New Malware with Botnet-like Features from China. The trojan compromises personal data such as IMEI/IMSI of the device and sends them back to the remote side to react based on the commands from there. Similar to Android.Geinimi but with a lower profile (less commands)

Botnet Like Features
Feb 22 2011 Android.Pjapps

New Trojan horse embedded on third party applications. It opens a back door on the compromised device and retrieves commands from a remote command and control server.

Botnet Like Features
Mar 1 2011 Android.DroidDream AKA Android.Rootcager AKA AndroidOS_Lootoor.A

The first example of a new generation of Mobile Malware: distributed through the Official Android Market, affected, according to Symantec 50,000 to 200,000 users. Expoits two different tools (rageagainstthecage and exploid) to root the phone

Android MarketBotnet Like FeaturesRoot

Mar 9 2011 Android.BgServ AKA Troj/Bgserv-A AKA AndroidOS_BGSERV.A

Trojanized version of the Android Market Security tool released by Google, on March the 6th, to remove the effects of DroidDream. The trojan opens a back door and transmits information from the device to a remote location. It shows more than ever security and reputation flaws in the Android Market Proposition Model. 5,000 users affected.

Android MarketBotnet Like FeaturesRoot

Mar 20 2011 Android.Zeahache

Trojan horse that elevates privileges on the compromised device, discovered on a Chinese language app available for download on alternative Chinese app markets. The app has the ability to root an Android device (by mean of the exploid tool called by zHash binary), leaving the device vulnerable to future threats. The app, which provides calling plan management capabilities was found also on the Android Market albeit this version lacked the code to invoke the exploit.

Android MarketRoot

Mar 30 2011 Android.Walkinwat

Manually installed from non-official Android Markets, the Trojan modifies certain permissions on the compromised device that allow it to perform the following actions: Access contacts in the address book, ccess network information, access the phone in a read-only state, access the vibrator on the phone, Check the license server for the application, find the phone’s location, initiate a phone call without using the interface, open network sockets to access the Internet, read low-level log files, send SMS messages, turn the phone on and off. It gives a message to user trying to discipline users that download files illegally from unauthorized sites.

May 9 2011

Android.Adsms AKA AndroidOS_Adsms.A

This malware specifically targeted China Mobile subscribers. The malware arrived through a link sent through SMS. The said message tells the China Mobile users to install a patch for their supposedly vulnerable devices by accessing the given link, which actually leads to a malicious configuration file. The malware then send message to premium numbers.

Android Market

May 11 2011

Android.Zsone AKA Android.Smstibook

Google removed a Trojan, Zsone, from the Android Market with the ability to subscribe users in China to premium rate QQ codes via SMS without their knowledge. 10,000 users affected.

Android Market

May 22 2011

Android.Spacem

A biblical plague For Android! Trojanized version of a legitimate application that is part threat, part doomsayer. The threat was embedded in a pirated version of an app called ‘Holy ***king Bible’, which itself has stirred controversy on multiple forums in which the app is in circulation. The malware targeted North American Users. After the reboot, it starts a service whichm at regular intervals, attempts to contact a host service, passing along the device’s phone number and operator code. It then attempts to retrieve a command from a remote location in intervals of 33 minutes. In addition to having abilities to respond to commands through the Internet and SMS, the threat also has activities that are designed to trigger on the 21 and 22 of May 2011, respectively (The End of The World).

Android Market

Botnet Like Features

May 31 2011

Android.LightDD

A brand new version of Android.DroidDream, dubbed DroidDreamLight, was found in 24 additional apps repackaged and redistributed with the malicious payload across a total of 5 different developers distributed in the Android Market. Between 30.000 and 120.000 users affected.

Android Market

Botnet Like Features

Jun 6 2011

Android/DroidKungFu.A AKA Android.Gunfu

Malware which uses the same exploit than DroidDream, rageagainstthecage, to gain root privilege and install the main malware component. Once installed, the malware has backdoor capabilities and is able to: execute command to delete a supplied file, execute a command to open a supplied homepage, download and install a supplied APK, open a supplied URL, run or start a supplied application package. The malware is moreover capable to obtain some information concerning the device and send them to a remote server: The collected information include: IMEI number, Build version release, SDK version, users’ mobile number, Phone model, Network Operator, Type of Net Connectivity, SD card available memory, Phone available memory. In few words, the device is turned into a member of a botnet.

Root

Botnet Like Features

Jun 9 2011

Android.Basebridge

Trojan Horse that attempts to send premium-rate SMS messages to predetermined numbers. When an infected application is installed, it attempts to exploit the udev Netlink Message Validation Local Privilege Escalation Vulnerability (BID 34536) in order to obtain “root” privileges.  Once running with “root” privileges it installs an executable which contains functionality to communicate with a control server using HTTP protocol and sends information such as Subscriber ID, Manufacturer and Model of the device, Version of the Android operating system. The Trojan also periodically connects to the control server and may perform the following actions: send SMS messages, remove SMS messages from the Inbox and dial phone numbers. The Trojan also contains functionality to monitor phone usage.

Botnet Like Features

Jun 9 2011

Android.Uxipp AKA Android/YZHCSMS.A

Trojan Horse that attempts to send premium-rate SMS messages to predetermined numbers. Again the threat is as an application for a Chinese gaming community. When executed, the Trojan attempts to send premium-rate SMS messages to several numbers and remove the SMS sent.
The Trojan sends device information, such as IMEI and IMSI numbers.

Android Market

Jun 10 2011

Andr/Plankton-A AKA Android.Tonclank 

This is a Trojan horse which steals information and may open a back door on Android devices. Available for download in the Android Market embedded in several applications, when the Trojan is executed, it steals the following information from the device: Device ID and Device permissions. The above information is then sent to a remote server from which  the Trojan downloads a .jar file which opens a back door and accepts commands to perform the following actions on the compromised device: copies all of the bookmarks on the device, copies all of the history on the device, copies all of the shortcuts on the device, creates a log of all of the activities performed on the device, modifies the browser’s home page, returns the status of the last executed command. The gathered information is then sent to a remote location.

Although this malware does not root the phone, its approach of loading additional code does not allow security software on Android to inspect the downloaded file in the usual “on-access” fashion, but only through scheduled and “on-demand” scans. This is the reason why the malware was not discovered before.

Android Market

Botnet Like Features

Jun 15 2011

Android.Jsmshider

Trojan found in alternative Android markets that predominately target Chinese Android users. This Trojan predominantly affects devices with a custom ROM. The application masquerades as a legitimate one and exploits a vulnerability found in the way most custom ROMs sign their system images to install a secondary payload (without user permission) onto the ROM, giving it the ability to communicate with a remote server and receive commands. Once installed the second payload may read, send and process incoming SMS messages (potentially for mTAN interception or fraudulent premium billing subscriptions), install apps trasparently, communicate with a remote server using DES encryption.

Botnet Like Features

Jun 20 2011

Android.GGTracker

This trojan is automatically downloaded to a user’s phone after visiting a malicious webpage that imitates the Android Market. The Trojan, which targets users in the United States by interacting with a number of premium SMS subscription services without consent, is able to sign-up a victim to a number of premium SMS subscription services without the user’s consent.  This can lead to unapproved charges to a victim’s phone bill. Android users are directed to install this Trojan after clicking on a malicious in-app advertisement, for instance a Fake Battery Saver.

Jul 1 2011

Android.KungFu Variants

Repackaged and distributed in the form of “legitimate” applications, these two variants are different from the original one by  re-implementing some of their malicious functionalities in native code and supporting two additional command and control (C&C) domains. The changes are possibly in place to make their detection and analysis harder.

The repackaged apps infected with the DroidKungFu variants are made available through a number of alternative app markets and forums targeting Chinese-speaking users.

RootBotnet Like Features
Jul 3 2011 AndroidOS_Crusewin.A AKA Android.Crusewind

Another example of a trojan which sends SMS to premium rate numbers. It also acts as a SMS Relay. It displays a standard Flash icon in the application list. The Trojan attempts to download an XML configuration file and uses it to retrieve a list of further URLs to send and receive additional data. The Trojan also contains functionality to perform the following actions: delete itself, delete SMS messages, send premium-rate SMS messages to the number that is specified in the downloaded XML configuration file, update itself.

Jul 6 2011

AndroidOS_SpyGold.A AKA Android.GoldDream

This backdoor is a Trojanized copy of a legitimate gaming application for Android OS smartphones. It steals sensitive information of the affected phone’s SMS and calls functions, compromising the security of the device and of the user. It monitors the affected phone’s SMS and phone calls and sends stolen information to a remote URL. It also connects to a malicious URL in order to receive commands from a remote malicious user.

Botnet Like Features

Jul 8 2011 DroidDream Light Variant

New variant of DroidDream Light in the Android Market, immediately removed by Google. Number of downloads was limited to 1000 – 5000. This is the third iteration of malware likely created by the authors of DroidDream.

Android Market

Botnet Like Features

Jul 11 2011

Android.Smssniffer AKA Andr/SMSRep-B/C AKA Android.Trojan.SmsSpy.B/C AKA Trojan-Spy.AndroidOS.Smser.a


ZiTMO arrives on Android!
This threat is found bundled with repackaged versions of legitimate applications. When the Trojan is executed, it grabs a copy of all SMS messages received on the handheld device and sends them to a remote location.

Jul 12 2011

Android.HippoSMS AKA Android.Hippo

Another threat found bundled with repackaged versions of legitimate applications. When the Trojan is executed, it grabs a copy of all SMS messages received on the handheld device and sends them to a remote location.

Jul 15 2011

Android.Fokonge

This threat is often found bundled with repackaged versions of legitimate applications. The repackaged applications are typically found on unofficial websites offering Android applications. When the Trojan is executed, it steals information and sends it to a remote server.

Botnet Like Features

Jul 15 2011

Android/Sndapps.A AKA Android.Snadapps

Five Android Apps found in the official Android Market share a common suspicious payload which upload users’ personal information such as email accounts as well as phone numbers to a remote server without user’s awareness.

Android Market

Botnet Like Features

Jul 27 2011

Android.Nickispy

Trojan horse which steals several information from Android devices (for instance GPS Location or Wi-Fi position). For the first time on the Android Platform a malware is believed  to spy conversations.

Botnet Like Features

Jul 28 2011

Android.Lovetrap

Trojan horse that sends SMS messages to premium-rate phone number. When the Trojan is executed, it retrieves information containing premium-rate phone numbers from a malicious URL then sends premium-rate SMS messages. and attempts to block any confirmation SMS messages the compromised device may receive from the premium-rate number in an attempt to mask its activities. The Trojan also attempts to gather IMSI and location information and send the information to the remote attacker.

Aug2 2011

Android.Premiumtext

This is a detection for Trojan horses that send SMS texts to premium-rate numbers. These Trojan is a repackaged versions of genuine Android software packages, often distributed outside the Android Marketplace. The package name, publisher, and other details will vary and may be taken directly from the original application..

Aug 9 2011

Android.NickiBot

It belongs to the same NickiSpy family. However, it is significantly different from its predecessor since it is fully controlled by SMS messages instead of relying on a hard-coded C&C server for instructions. In addition, NickiBot supports a range of bot commands, such as for (GPS-based) location monitoring, sound recording and (email-based) uploading, calllog collection, etc. It also has a check-in mechanism to a remote website. his threat is often found bundled with repackaged versions of legitimate applications. The repackaged applications are typically found on unofficial websites offering Android applications. When the Trojan is executed, it steals information and sends it to a remote server.

Botnet Like Features

Legend

Parallel Market

Android MarketAndroid Market

Manual Install

Automatic Install of Apps

Send SMS or Calls to Premium Numbers

Botnet Like Features Server C&C

GPS SpyGPS Spyware

Root Root Access

Happy Birthday! One Year of Android Malware

August 9, 2011 2 comments

Exactly One year ago (9 August 2010) Kaspersky discovered the first SMS Trojan for Android in the Wild dubbed SMS.AndroidOS.FakePlayer.a. This is considered a special date for the Google Mobile OS, since, before then, Android Malware was a litte bit more than en exercise of Style, essentially focused on Spyware. After that everything changed, and mobile malware targeting the Android OS become more and more sophisticated.

For this reason I decided to prepare a special birthday gift for the Android, that is a special compilation showing the long malware trail which characterized this day. Commenting the graph, in my opinion, probably the turning point was Android.Geinimi (end of 2010), featuring the characteristics of a primordial Botnet, but also Android.DroidDream (AKA RootCager) is worthwhile to mention because of its capability to root the phone and potentially to remotely install applications without direct user intervention. Moreover, as you will have probably noticed, the average impact is low, but, the number of malware is growing exponentially after June, this is the reason why I decided to divide my special compilation in two parts. Today is part I: from the beginning to May, the 31st 2011.

Let’s go in this mobile malware travel between botnets, sleepwalkers and biblic plagues and meanwhile do not forget to read my presentation on how to implement a secure mobile strategy.

Date Description Features Overall Risk
Aug 9 2010
SMS.AndroidOS.FakePlayer.a

First SMS Android Malware In the Wild: The malicious program penetrates Android devices in the guise of a harmless media player application. Once manually installed on the phone, the Trojan uses the system to begin sending SMSs to premium rate numbers without the owner’s knowledge or consent, resulting in money passing from a user’s account to that of the cybercriminals.

Aug 17 2010 AndroidOS_Droisnake.A

This is the first GPS Spy Malware disguised as an Android Snake game application. To the victim, Tap Snake looks like a clone of the Snake game. However, once someone installs this app on a phone, the “game” serves as a front for a spy app that proceeds to run in the background, secretly reporting GPS coordinates back to a server. The would-be spy then pays for and downloads an app called GPS Spy and enters an email address and code to gain access to the victim’s uploaded data.

Android MarketGPS Spy
Sep 14 2010 SMS.AndroidOS.FakePlayer.b

Pornography lands on Android! This malware is a variant of SMS.AndroidOS.FakePlayer.A. The malware poses as a pornographic application whose package name is pornoplayer.apk, and it installs on the phone with a pornographic icon. When the user launches the application, the malware does not show any adult content and, instead, sends 4 SMS messages to short codes, at the end-user’s expense.

Oct 13 2010
SMS.AndroidOS.FakePlayer.c

Pornography back on Android! Third variant of the malware SMS.AndroidOS.FakePlayer.A. New pornographic application, old icon. Sends 2 SMS messages to short codes, at the end-user’s expense.

Dec 29 2010
Android.Geinimi

First example of a Botnet-Like Malware on Android. “Grafted” onto repackaged versions of legitimate applications, primarily games, and distributed in third-party Chinese Android app markets. Once the malware is installed on a user’s phone, it has the potential to receive commands from a remote server that allow the owner of that server to control the phone. The specific information it collects includes location coordinates and unique identifiers for the device (IMEI) and SIM card (IMSI).

Botnet Like Features
Feb 14 2011
Android.Adrd AKA Android.HongTouTou

New Malware with Botnet-like Features from China. The trojan compromises personal data such as IMEI/IMSI of the device and sends them back to the remote side to react  based on the commands from there. Similar to Android.Geinimi but with a lower profile (less commands)

Botnet Like Features
Feb 22 2011 Android.Pjapps

New Trojan horse embedded on third party applications. It opens a back door on the compromised device and retrieves commands from a remote command and control server.

Botnet Like Features
Mar 1 2011 Android.DroidDream AKA Android.Rootcager AKA AndroidOS_Lootoor.A

The first example of a new generation of Mobile Malware: distributed through the Official Android Market, affected, according to Symantec 50,000 to 200,000 users. Expoits two different tools  (rageagainstthecage and exploid) to root the phone

Android MarketBotnet Like FeaturesRoot

Mar 9 2011 Android.BgServ AKA Troj/Bgserv-A AKA AndroidOS_BGSERV.A

Trojanized version of the Android Market Security tool released by Google, on March the 6th, to remove the effects of DroidDream. The trojan opens a back door and transmits information from the device to a remote location. It shows more than ever security and reputation flaws in the Android Market Proposition Model. 5,000 users affected.

Android MarketBotnet Like FeaturesRoot

Mar 20 2011 Android.Zeahache

Trojan horse that elevates privileges on the compromised device, discovered on a Chinese language app available for download on alternative Chinese app markets. The app has the ability to root an Android device (by mean of the exploid tool called by zHash binary), leaving the device vulnerable to future threats. The app, which provides calling plan management capabilities was found also on the Android Market albeit this version lacked the code to invoke the exploit.

Android MarketRoot

Mar 30 2011 Android.Walkinwat

Manually installed from non-official Android Markets, the Trojan modifies certain permissions on the compromised device that allow it to perform the following actions: Access contacts in the address book, ccess network information, access the phone in a read-only state, access the vibrator on the phone, Check the license server for the application, find the phone’s location, initiate a phone call without using the interface, open network sockets to access the Internet, read low-level log files, send SMS messages, turn the phone on and off. It gives a message to user  trying to discipline users that download files illegally from unauthorized sites.

May 9 2011

Android.Adsms AKA AndroidOS_Adsms.A

This malware specifically targeted China Mobile subscribers. The malware arrived through a link sent through SMS. The said message tells the China Mobile users to install a patch for their supposedly vulnerable devices by accessing the given link, which actually leads to a malicious configuration file. The malware then send message to premium numbers.

Android Market

May 11 2011

Android.Zsone AKA Android.Smstibook

Google removed a Trojan, Zsone, from the Android Market with the ability to subscribe users in China to premium rate QQ codes via SMS without their knowledge. 10,000 users affected.

Android Market

May 22 2011

Android.Spacem

A biblical plague For Android! Trojanized version of a legitimate application that is part threat, part doomsayer. The threat was embedded in a pirated version of an app called ‘Holy ***king Bible’, which itself has stirred controversy on multiple forums in which the app is in circulation. The malware targeted North American Users. After the reboot, it starts a service whichm at regular intervals, attempts to contact a host service, passing along the device’s phone number and operator code. It then attempts to retrieve a command from a remote location in intervals of 33 minutes. In addition to having abilities to respond to commands through the Internet and SMS, the threat also has activities that are designed to trigger on the 21 and 22 of May 2011, respectively (The End of The World).

Android Market

Botnet Like Features

May 31 2011

Android.LightDD

A brand new version of Android.DroidDream, dubbed DroidDreamLight, was found in 24 additional apps repackaged and redistributed with the malicious payload across a total of 5 different developers distributed in the Android Market. Between 30.000 and 120.000 users affected.

Android Market

Botnet Like Features

Legend

Parallel Market

Android MarketAndroid Market

Manual Install

Automatic Install of Apps

Send SMS or Calls to Premium Numbers

Botnet Like Features Server C&C

GPS SpyGPS Spyware

Top Security Challenges for 2011: Check Point’s Perspective

May 16, 2011 1 comment

At the last Check Point Experience in Barcelona, the Israeli-based company unleashed its own Top Security Challenges for 2011.

In a certain sense one might say that it could be quite easy for Checkpoint to make predictions at this point of the year considered that we are in the middle of 2011 (and truthful predictions should already come true), but this is not my point of interest. My point of interest is the fact that, in my prevision evaluation of security predictions for 2011 (we were in December 2010), I was a little bit disappointed for the fact that it had not been possible to compare Check Point, a landmark in Network Security, with the other vendors since at that time it did not release any prediction for the current year. The perspective of this vendor, focused on network security, is a really interesting complement to the landscape (that is unifying endpoint, network and cloud security), since Check Point is considered the pioneer of modern firewall, as well as inventor of the stateful inspection technology, the foundation of network protection.

According to John Vecchi, head of product marketing for Check Point, the following areas will be on the radars and agendas of CISOs worldwide

  • Virtualization and the cloud: according to him, the challenges associated with this trend include lack of skills in the security team, cost of new solutions and regulatory issues. To these challenges I would also add fragmentation of Cloud Environments which need powerful tools to normalize, securize and manage such environments. As a matter of fact we are experiencing the proliferation of Hypervisors, operating systems, services and application that must forcefully coexist each other on the same environment;
  • IT consumerization: Tablets and Smartphones are becoming inseparable companions of Organizations and Enterprises, but, although they are breaking the line between personal and professional life, they have not been natively conceived for a professional usage, and this paves the way to new threats that need to be faced. According to the Israeli company 30% of enterprises are implementing tablet computers and by 2013, we will see a 100% increase in smartphone usage. Meanwhile, according to Juniper Networks, Android Malware increases 4 times faster…
  • Consolidation and complexity in security. According to Check Point there is a huge trend to converge and unify information security technologies. This challenge is not a surprise: the company is well known among security professionals for the completeness of its management framework and the consolidation (of vendors and technologies) is a well consolidated trend in market, vendors and technologies;
  • Web 2.0 and social media: this is another consolidated trend whose last (and more relevant) example is the affair of Primoris Era and the consequent risks of social espionage or social (media) engineering which can have a devastating impact for the Enterprises. But this is not the only risks: due to their six degrees of separations: social networks are a powerful (and reliable) mean to spread infections. In my opinion, this challenge is strictly related to IT consumerisation (as mobile technologies, social media is an example of consumer technologies which rapidly spread into Enterprise), and Enterprises are generally not prepared to face similar threats, which are increasingly pushing the users to cross the boundaries which separate personal and professional usage of their working tools. In both cases, in my opinion, the possible countermeasures are similar: not only technology but (most of all) education for users who should be made aware of risks deriving from crossing that line: would you ever store the last financial plan in the same computer when your son chats, surfs the web or share his life on Facebook? Why should you do on the same phone or tablet where you share your life (without considering the fact that data are continuously sent to Apple, Google and so on…).
  • Data security and data loss: according to Check Point, $7.2m is the average cost of a data breach in 2011. USBs and laptops, corporate email and web mail are the largest sources of data ,loss. Agreeable security challenge, but too easy after the affair of Wikileaks.
  • Threat landscape: according to Check Point, this can be broken down into two motives: Crime and profit, and Cyber-warfare and hacktivists. The biggest recent threats include stuxnet, operation aurora (belonging to the second category), and zeus zbot (belonging to the first). These are the so called Advanced Persistent Threats that are increasingly used not as “exercises of style” but as real weapons for fighting wars on the virtual battlefields or stealing money.

The last predictions have little to deal with security (in the sense that they are general concepts) but are worthwhile to be mentioned as well:

  • Governance, risk and compliance: according to Check Point Governance and compliance has the greatest influence on the information security programme for 60% of companies. In my opinion this challenge goes in the same direction of consolidation and complexity in security which need unified management whose role, definitively is just to enforce the policy (at least this is my model);

  • Cost-saving IT and Green IT: the latter two are strictly joined (and in a certain sense also joined with Cloud and virtualization). IT has always been considered an enabler: but probably in the current complicated situation it is not enough and IT must also support the enterprise to control costs (and moreover in this scenario information security must be a business process).

After analyzing Check Point’s Top Threats I enjoyed in comparing them with the available predictions of other vendors. Of course I had to do some assumptions, that is: I mapped the “Threat Landscape” to Advanced Persistent Threat, “IT Consumerization to Mobile”, and “Data Security and Data Loss” to Removable Media.

The results are represented in the following table:

Checkpoint confirms the mobile as the Top Threat for 2011 (as done, in total, by 6 of the 7 examined vendors, the only excluded, Kaspersky, simply put the mobile as a top threat for 2010). Similarly, Advanced Persistent Threats gained the preference of 5 vendors of the 7 examined, including Check Point, as Social Media did. Curiously, as far as Cloud and Virtualization are concerned, Checkpoint’s Top Challenge is similar to the one provided by Symantec (and Trend Micro): I would have expected more vendors addressing the Cloud and Virtualization as a key concern for the 2011 (and the examples of Epsilon, Amazon and Sony are particularly meaningful of the level of attention deserved by this technology).

On Facing the 2011 Top Security Challenges, particolarly meaningful for Check Point is the role played by the unified management technologies. This is not surprising since, on one hand, vendors and technologies are converging and consolidating themselves in few vendors with a multi-domain porfolio (the ast firm in order of example is Sophos with the acquistion of Astaro); on the other hand Check Point management technologies are considered the state-of-the-art for a unified management framework.

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