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Posts Tagged ‘Symantec’

The Cradle of Cyber War

August 31, 2012 2 comments

Yesterday Bloomberg reported the news of a new cyber attack in Middle East targeting an Oil Company. The latest victim is Ras Laffan Liquefied Natural Gas Co., a Qatari LNG producer that has shut down part of its computer systems targeted by an unidentified malware since Aug. 27.

According to the scant official information available, desktop computers in company offices were the only affected, while operational systems at onshore and offshore installations were immune, with no impact on production or cargoes.

Of course it is impossible to avoid a parallelism with the cyber attack targeting Saudi Aramco a couple of weeks ago, and the 30,000 workstations that the company admitted to have been targeted (and restored only few days ago) by this malware outbreak. It is also impossible not to mention the infamous Shamoon, the brand new malware discovered in Middle East that information security community immediately connected to the Saudi Aramco cyber incident, furthermore stating (by literally quoting Symantec’s blog):

W32.Disttrack is a new threat that is being used in specific targeted attacks against at least one organization in the energy sector.

The Ras Raffan cyber attack maybe provides a partial answer to the question regarding who else might have been affected by Shamoon (I wonder if we will soon learn of other companies targeted) and even if security researchers have not confirmed, so far, the connection between Shamoon and this latest attack, the first speculations on regard have already appeared. According to the WSJ, the RasGas information technology department identified the virus as Shamoon, stating that:

Following the virus attack, some “computers are completely dead”.

The Middle East is considered the Cradle of Civilization, but I am afraid that, in this 21st century, it is becoming the “Cradle of Cyber War”. And even if you consider Shamoon just an amateurish copycat (with no cyberwar intentions), you cannot ignore that the latest research according to which even Wiper is a son of the so-called Tilded Platform (the same malware platform that originated Stuxnet, Duqu and Flame).

This cannot be considered a mere coincidence.

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Here’s Shamoon!

August 17, 2012 Leave a comment

So, it looks like that the destructive impacts of the cyber attack targeting Aramco, where definitively true. In the same hours in which the first details about the malware were disclosed, Kasperky Lab, McAfee and Symantec have dedicated respectively three blog posts to describe what appears to be the latest example of a large scale cyber attack targeting Middle East (apparently focused on companies belonging to Energy Sector).

Shamoon (or W32/DistTrack), this is the name of the malware, has some points in common (the name of a module) with the infamous Flame, but according to Kaspersky this is the only similarity:

It is more likely that this is a copycat, the work of a script kiddies inspired by the story.

The malware has the same features seen in other “companions” among which the driver signed by a legitimate company “Eidos Corporation”.

According to Symantec, the malware consists of several components:

  • Dropper: the main component and source of the original infection. It drops a number of other modules.
  • Wiper: this module is responsible for the destructive functionality of the threat.
  • Reporter: this module is responsible for reporting infection information back to the attacker.

According to McAfee, machines infected by the malware are made useless as most of the files, the MBR and the partition tables are overwritten with garbage data. The overwritten data is lost and is not recoverable, so this should confirm the destructive details received yesterday.

While, according to Seculert, the malware is a two-stage attack:

Stage 1: The attacker takes control of an internal machine connected directly to the internet, and uses that as a proxy to the external Command & Control server. Through the proxy, the attacker can infect the other internal machines, probably not connected directly to the internet.

Stage 2: Once the intended action on the internal infected machines is complete, the attacker executes the Shamoon malware, wiping all evidence of other malicious software or stolen data from those machines (or also the MBR and the partition table as McAfee Suggested). It then reported back to the external Command & Control Server through the proxy.

So far it is not clear who is behind the attack, although Kaspersky Lab suggests that the term Shamoon:

could be a reference to the Shamoon College of Engineering http://www.sce.ac.il/eng/. Or, it could simply be the name of one of the malware authors. Shamoon is the equivalent of Simon in Arabic.

More details are expected in the next hours.

January 2012 Cyber Attacks Timeline (Part 2)

February 2, 2012 1 comment

Click here for part 1.

The second half of January is gone, and it is undoubtely clear that this month has been characterized by hacktivism and will be remembered for the Mega Upload shutdown. Its direct and indirect aftermaths led to an unprecedented wave of cyber attacks in terms of LOIC-Based DDoS (with a brand new self service approach we will need to get used to), defacements and more hacking initiatives against several Governments and the EU Parliament, all perpetrated under the common umbrella of the opposition to SOPA, PIPA and ACTA. These attacks overshadowed another important Cyber Event: the Middle East Cyberwar (which for the sake of clarity deserved a dedicated series of posts, here Part I and Part II) and several other major breaches (above all Dreamhost and New York State Electric & Gas and Rochester Gas & Electric).

Chronicles also reports a cyber attack to railways, several cyber attacks to universities, a preferred target, and also of a bank robbery in South Africa which allowed the attackers to steal $6.7 million.

Do you think that cyber attacks in this month crossed the line and the Cyber Chessboard will not be the same anymore? It may be, meanwhile do not forget to follow @paulsparrows to get the latest timelines and feel free to support and improve my work with suggeastions and other meaningful events I eventually forgot to mention.

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January 2012 Cyber Attacks Timeline (Part 1)

January 15, 2012 2 comments

Click here for part 2.

New year, new Cyber Attacks Timeline. Let us start our Information Security Travel in 2012 with the chart of the attacks occurred in the first fifteen days of January. This month has been characterized so far by the leak of Symantec Source Code and the strange story of alleged Cyber Espionage revolving around it. But this was not the only remarkable event: chronicles tell the endless Cyber-war between Israel and a Saudi Hacker (and more in general the Arab World), but also a revamped activity of the Anonymous against SOPA (with peak in Finland). The end of the month has also reserved several remarkable events (such as the breaches to T-Mobile and Zappos, the latter affecting potentially 24,000,000 of users). In general this has been a very active period. For 2012 this is only the beginning, and if a good beginning makes a good ending, there is little to be quiet…

Browse the chart and follows @paulsparrows to be updated on a biweekly basis. As usual after the jump you will find all the references. Feel free to report wrong/missing links or attacks.

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Fake Leaked Memos And Closed BackDoors

January 15, 2012 Leave a comment

From an Information Security perspective this 2012 has begun with (too) many meaningful events, among which the most resounding so far, has been the alleged leak of portions of the source code belonging to several consumer and enterprise product by Symantec, a leading security vendor.

@YamaTough, a member of a hacking collective called “The Lords of Dharmaraja” (Dharmaraja is the Lord of Death and Justice in Hinduism) claimed paternity for an attack that, immediately after its execution, has unleashed a complicated story of Cyber Espionage full of twists and mysteries which has raised (and keeps on rising) many (un)resolved questions.

The Indian Mystery



Jan 5

@YamaTough, a member of an hacking group called, the Lords of Dharmaraja, leaks the source code of Symantec Endpoint Protection Enterprise Suite (SAVCE 10.2 and SEP11), approximately 5 years old. The source code was allegedly obtained from The hacking of Indian Military Servers.Symantec has admitted that “a segment of its source code used in two of our older enterprise products has been accessed”.

During the same operation the same hackers also leaked some other documents according to which:

  1. The Indian government has source code for Symantec’s AV software, albeit of 2006 vintage.
  2. The Indian government is strong arming cell phone manufacturers to provide back doors into their handsets (defined RINOA: RIM, Nokia and Apple).
  3. The Indian government is in possession of confidential internal communications from the US-China Economic and Security Review Commission (USCC).
  4. The Indian government is actively engaged in espionage efforts targeting not only the USCC, but potentially thousands of US government networks, ranging from those of federal agencies to systems used by state and municipal entities.

Jan 12

In any case, although the leaked source code is real, it looks like the Lords of Dharmaraja faked the government memo (in order to attract more attention) since some emails there contained (and purportedly obtained by the RINOA backdoors) were allegedly stolen from the Indian Embassy on Paris and appear to have already been leaked on pastebin in December by the same hacker @YamaTough. There are also several doubts on the fact that activities of the USCC could be of any interest to Indian intelligence.

Jan 13

As an announced trail of the controversial Cyber Espionage affair, @YamaTough releases the source code of Norton Utilities. The author claims the leak is in support of the lawsuit between Symantec and Jame Gross, a US resident who is taking the company to court for spreading scareware. The full Source Code of Norton Antivirus is announced for Tuesday, Jan the 17th.

Not only, according to the hackers, the source code has been found on a server belonging to India Military Intelligence, but also, together with the links to the Source Code, the hackers posted an Internal Memo of India Military Intelligence entitled “Tactical Network For Cellular Surveillance”, containing potentially explosive information. According to this controversial memo “in exchange for the Indian market presence” mobile device manufacturers, including RIM, Nokia, and Apple (collectively defined in the document as “RINOA”) have agreed to provide backdoor access on their devices. Moreover it looks like the a CYCADA Team used the backdoors for espionage actions against the  U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission (USCC) and potentially against thousands of US government networks, ranging from those of federal agencies to systems used by state and municipal entities.

Although the implicated manufacturers firmly denied any connection, at first glance the hypothesis of a backdoor on our mobile companions seemed possible, also because it came immediately after another controversial event concerning mobile privacy, the infamous Carrier IQ rootkit found on many mobile devices.

A giant case of Cyber Espionage? Not actually! It looks like the whole story is showing an unpredictable conclusion (?). In the last days evidences are emerging that the Lords Of Dharmaraja faked the memo, maybe in order to obtain a greater attention on their operations. Although, as previously stated, Symantec has recognized parts of the source code on the leaked data, there are too many inconsistencies and incorrect information inside the memo, and also several of the emails allegedly obtained by mean of the RINOA backdoor had already been posted on December after the original attack made by the collective at the Indian Embassy in Paris (where the memo was leaked). Moreover, the letterhead on the memo comes from a military intelligence unit not involved in surveillance.

The mistery deepens, but in the meantime the Lords Of Dharmaraja keep on posting Symantec Code: Saturday Jan 14 the alleged Source Code of the Norton Utilities was released, the next Tuesday Jan 17, will be the turn of the full Norton Antivirus Source Code.

What Security Vendors Said One Year Ago…

January 10, 2012 2 comments

I did not resist, so after publishing the summary of Security Predictions for 2012, I checked out what security vendors predicted one year ago for 2011. Exactly as I did in my previous post, at the beginning of 2011 I collected the security predictions in a similar post (in Italian). I also published in May an update (in English) since, during the Check Point Experience in Barcelona held in May 2011, the Israeli security firm published its predictions. Even if the latters have been published nearly at the half of 2011, for the sake of completeness, I decided to insert them as well in this year-to-year comparison.

Then, I included Symantec (for which this year I did not find any prediction), McAfee, Trend Micro, Kaspersky, Sophos and Cisco. I included Check Point in a second time and I did not include Fortinet, At that time I missed their five security predictions, which I only discovered later so I decided to provide an addendum for this post including Fortinet as well in order to provide a deeper perspective.

The security predictions for 2011 are summarized in the following chart, which reports what the vendors (with the partial above described exception of Checkpoint) expected for the past year in terms of Information Security trends.

But a strict side-by-side comparison with the 2012 information security predictions (extracted by my previous post) is more helpful and meaningful:

As you may notice mobile threats were on top even among the predictions for 2011. This prediction came easily true most of all for Android which suffered (and keeps on suffering) a huge increase in malware detection samples (even if the overall security risk remains contained). Social Media were on top as well: they have been crucial for the Wind of the Changes blown by the Arab Spring but in the same time Social Media have raised many security concerns for reputation, the so called Social Network Poisoning (who remembers Primoris Era?). Although 2011 was the year of the Anonymous, hacktvism ranked “only” at number 4, behind Advanced Persistent Threats, which however played a crucial role for information security (an APT was deployed for the infamous RSA Breach, but it was not an isolated case).

Also botnets, web threats and application vulnerabilities ranked at the top of Security predictions for last year (and came true). As far as botnets are concerned, fortunately 2011 was a very important year for their shutdown (for instance Hlux/Kelihos, Coreflood, Rustock). In several cases the botnets were taken down thanks to joint operations between private sectors and law enforcement agencies (another prediction came true). On the application side, this prediction came true most of all thanks to the Sony breach, the Liza Moon infection and the huge rate of SQLi based attacks and ASP.NET vulnerabilities. We have also assisted to an hard blow to SSL/TLS and XML Encryption.

But what is more surprising (and amusing) in my opinion is not to emphasize which predictions were correct, but rather to notice  which predictions were dramatically wrong: it looks like that, against the predictions, virtualization threats were snubbed by cybercrookers in 2011 (and nearly do not appear in 2012). But the most amusing fact is that no security vendor (among the ones analyzed) was able to predict the collapse of the Certification Authority model thanks most of all to the Comodo and Diginotar Breaches.

One Year Of Lulz (Part II)

December 26, 2011 1 comment

Christmas has just gone and here it is my personal way to wish you a Happy New Year: the second part of my personal chart (first part here) of Main 2011 Cyber Attacks covering the time window from August to November 2011 (December is not yet finished, and featuring remarkable events, so expect an update very soon). This memorable year is nearly over and is time, if you feel nostalgic, to scroll down the second part of the list to review the main Cyber Events that contributed, in my opinion, to change the landscape and the rules of the (information security) game. Many events in this period among whom, IMHO, the most noticeable is the one carried on against Diginotar. Since then our trust in conventional authentication models is not (and will not be) the same anymore.

Of course this is my personal selection. Suggestions are well accepted and if you need more details about the cyber events in 2011, feel free to consult my 2011 Cyber Attacks Master Index. As usual after the page break you find all the references…

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Another Certification Authority Breached (the 12th!)

December 10, 2011 1 comment

2011 CA Attacks Timeline (Click To Enlarge)This year is nearly at the end but it looks like it is really endless, at least from an Information Security Perspective. As a matter of fact this 2011 will leave an heavy and embarassing heritage to Information Security: the Certification Authority authentication model, which has been continuously under siege in this troubled year; a siege that seems endless and which has shown its ultimate expression on the alleged compromise of yet another Dutch Certification Authority: Gemnet.

Gemnet, an affiliate of KPN, has suspended certificate signing operation after an intrusion on its publicly accessible instance of phpMyAdmin (a web interface for managing SQL Database) which was, against any acceptable best practice, exposed on the Internet and not protected by password. As in case of Diginotar, another Dutch Certification Authority which declared Bankrupt few days after being compromised by the infamous Comodo Hacker, Gamnet has  the Dutch government among its customers including the Ministry of Security and Justice, Bank of Dutch Municipalities and the police.

After the intrusion, the attacker claimed to have manipulated the databases, and to allegedly have been able to gain control over the system and all of the documents contained on it, although KPN, claims the documents contained on the server were all publicly available. Moreover the attacker claimed the attack was successful since he could obtain the password (braTica4) used for administrative tasks on the server. As a precaution, while further information is collected about the incident, Gemnet CSP, KPN’s certificate authority division, has also suspended access to their website.

The breach is very different, in purpose and motivations, from the one occurred to Diginotar, at the end of July, which led to the issuance of more than 500 bogus Certificates (on behalf of Google, Microsoft, and other companies). In case of Diginotar the certificates were used to intercept about 300,000 Iranians, as part of what was called “Operation Black Tulip“, a campaign aimed to eavesdrop and hijack dissidents’ emails. For the chronicles, the same author of the Diginotar hack, the Infamous Comodo Hacker, had already compromised another Certification Authority earlier this year, Comodo (which was at the origin of his nickname). In both cases, the hacks were performed for political reasons, respectively as a retaliation for the Massacre of Srebrenica (in which the Comodo Hacker claimed the Dutch UN Blue Helmets did not do enough to prevent it), and as a retaliation for Stuxnet, allegedly developed in a joint effort by Israel and US to delay Iranian Nuclear Program.

But although resounding, these are not the only examples of attacks or security incidents targeting Certification Authorities: after all, the attacks against CAs started virtually in 2010 with the infamous 21th century weapon Stuxnet, that could count among its records, the fact to be the first malware using a driver signed with a valid certificate belonging to Realtek Semiconductor Corps. A technique also used by Duqu, the so called Duqu’s son.

Since then, I counted 11 other breaches, perpetrated for different purposes: eavesdropping (as is the case of the Infamous Comodo Hacker), malware driver signatures, or “simple” compromised servers (with DDoS tools as in case of KPN).

At this point I wonder what else we could deploy to protect our identity, given that two factor authentication has been breached, CAs are under siege, and also SSL needs a substantial revision. Identity protection is getting more and more important, since our privacy is constantly under attack, but we are dangerously running out of ammunitions.

(Click below for references)

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November 2011 Cyber Attacks Timeline (Part I)

November 17, 2011 5 comments

Update 12/01/2011: November Cyber Attacks Timeline (Part II)

This first half of November has been very hard for Steam. The Valve Online Gaming Platform suffered a security breach putting at risk a potential sample of 37 million of users and hence wins the crown for the Major Breach of the First Half of November.

Also a sportswear giant like Adidas fell among the victims of cybercriminals, with a “sophisticated attack” targeting 500,000 users.

This month was also hot for the Cold Finland which has suffered two security breaches involving more than 30,000 users (a third breach also happened on November, the 16th, affecting 16,000 users but of course will be reported in the next report).

Two other CAs (KPN and Digicert Sdn Bhd Malaysia, not to be confused with Digicert US-based CA) were compromised. Also F-secure discovered a sample of malware signed with a valid certificate stolen from a Malasyan company.

On a larger scale, after 2 years of hunt, FBI uncovered a huge Botnet in Estonia, which stole $14 million from 4 million users worldwide, while on the other side of the Globe, Brazilian ISPS were targeted by a massive DNS Poisoning attack.

Not even Facebook was safe this month, whose (too) many users were targeted with a malware posting pornographic images on their wall exploiting an Internet Explorer Vulnerability.

As far as hactivism is concerned, the political events in the real world had a predictable echo in the Cyber space, with an attack to Palestine the day after the nation was admitted as a full member of UNESCO.

As a retaliation, some Israeli Government web sites were targeted with a wave of DDoS attacks by the infamous Anonymous hacking group. In any case the Anonymous were active also in other Cyberwar fronts acting a couple of defacements and DDoS (in one case they targeted the Muslim Brotherhood) and were also the authors to one of the two attacks in Finland (the one towards a right-wind party).

A group of Hackers called TeaMp0isoN claimed to have hacked more than 150 Email Id’s of International Foreign Governments even if this statement is controversial.

What is not controversial is the Cyberwar declared against Mexico which was targeted, in November, by a massive waves of Cyber Attacks.

Besides these noticeable events, the month was characterized by many other minor attacks and dumps among which, particularly noticeable are: the attacks to a couple of banks (DDoS and defacements) and Universities (UCLA and Standford hit by data breaches), and the Fox Business Twitter Account Hacking (Oops they did it again!).

The month ends with the first example of malware targeting ambulance.

Please notice that I decided henceforth not to insert attacks targeting a limited amount of users and most of all, claimed without clear evidence: in this month I discovered a claimed fake attack to Italian Police announced recycling old data.

  1. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/nov/01/palestinians-hit-cyber-attack-unesco
  2. http://www.cyberwarnews.info/2011/11/02/dump-of-steam-accounts/
  3. http://www.symantec.com/content/en/us/enterprise/media/security_response/whitepapers/the_nitro_attacks.pdf
  4. http://thehackernews.com/2011/11/fraud-communities-owned-and-exposed-by.html
  5. http://www.cyberwarnews.info/2011/11/03/opdarknet-official-and-last-release/
  6. http://www.cyberwarnews.info/2011/11/03/accounts-dumped-from-hiphopinstrumental-net/
  7. http://www.cyberwarnews.info/2011/11/03/peru-government-websites-defaced-by-challenges-hackers/
  8. http://nakedsecurity.sophos.com/2011/11/03/another-certificate-authority-issues-dangerous-certficates/
  9. http://www.cyberwarnews.info/2011/11/04/bayareaconnection-net-defaced/
  10. http://www.cyberwarnews.info/2011/11/04/yet-another-pointless-account-dump-hundreds-dumped-from-www-jjs2-com/
  11. http://threatpost.com/en_us/blogs/another-dutch-ca-kpn-stops-issuing-certificates-after-finding-ddos-tool-server-110411
  12. http://thehackernews.com/2011/11/capitalone-bank-taken-down-by-anonymous.html
  13. http://www.networkworld.com/news/2011/110411-hacker-selling-access-to-compromised-252771.html?source=nww_rss
  14. http://www.phiprivacy.net/?p=8227
  15. http://thehackernews.com/2011/11/anonymous-attack-on-israeli-government.html
  16. http://www.itworld.com/security/222033/fake-threat-against-facebook-dwarfs-anonymous-real-attacks-israel-finland-portugal
  17. http://pplware.sapo.pt/informacao/site-freeport-pt-foi-atacado-entre-outros/
  18. http://www.databreaches.net/?p=21359
  19. http://www.itworld.com/security/222033/fake-threat-against-facebook-dwarfs-anonymous-real-attacks-israel-finland-portugal
  20. http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/dy/national/T111105002386.htm
  21. http://www.cyberwarnews.info/2011/11/08/massive-amount-of-accounts-dumped-from-adidas-com/
  22. http://www.theregister.co.uk/2011/11/07/adidas_hack_attack/
  23. http://www.cyberwarnews.info/2011/11/08/massive-amount-of-accounts-dumped-from-adidas-com/
  24. http://thehackernews.com/2011/11/international-foreign-government-e.html
  25. http://www.theregister.co.uk/2011/11/09/teamp0ison_publishes_stupid_password_list/
  26. http://news.softpedia.com/news/16-000-Finns-Affected-by-Data-Breach-232851.shtml
  27. http://nakedsecurity.sophos.com/2011/11/08/anonymous-attacks-el-salvadoran-sites/
  28. http://www.smh.com.au/business/privacy-of-millions-at-mercy-of-a-usb-device-20111107-1n3wm.html
  29. http://thehackernews.com/2011/11/ump-french-political-party-got-hacked.html
  30. http://www.cyberwarnews.info/2011/11/08/premierleaguepool-co-uk-accounts-dumped-by-sen/
  31. http://www.cyberwarnews.info/2011/11/08/60k-accounts-dumped-from-ohmedia-by-teamswastika/
  32. http://www.cyberwarnews.info/2011/11/08/dump-of-accounts-from-beachvolley-se/
  33. http://www.cyberwarnews.info/2011/11/08/khadraglass-com-hacked-and-accounts-dumped-by-inj3ct0r/
  34. http://www.cyberwarnews.info/2011/11/09/scamming-email-account-dumpers-are-surfacing-50k-french-accounts-dumped/
  35. http://thehackernews.com/2011/11/possible-credit-card-theft-in-steam.html
  36. http://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/2011/november/malware_110911/malware_110911
  37. http://www.theregister.co.uk/2011/11/10/it_manager_charges/
  38. http://thehackernews.com/2011/11/bangladesh-supreme-court-website-hacked.html
  39. https://twitter.com/#!/igetroot/status/134865652543520768
  40. http://thehackernews.com/2011/11/operation-brotherhood-shutdown-by.html
  41. http://nakedsecurity.sophos.com/2011/11/14/ambulance-service-disrupted-by-computer-virus-infection/
  42. http://www.cyberwarnews.info/2011/11/12/ucla-department-of-psychology-hacked-by-inj3ct0r/
  43. http://www.ehackingnews.com/2011/11/social-network-site-findfriendzcom.html
  44. http://www.cyberwarnews.info/2011/11/13/dump-of-information-by-inj3ct0r/
  45. http://www.f-secure.com/weblog/archives/00002269.html
  46. http://www.cyberwarnews.info/2011/11/14/dump-of-accounts-from-congress-of-sonora/
  47. http://www.cyberwarnews.info/2011/11/14/2-more-government-dumps-by-metalsoft-team/
  48. http://www.cyberwarnews.info/2011/11/14/another-big-dump-of-accounts-from-sec404-mexican-hackers/
  49. http://www.cyberwarnews.info/2011/11/14/another-mexican-government-congress-hacked-canaldelcongreso-gob-mx/
  50. http://www.cyberwarnews.info/2011/11/14/dump-of-data-from-another-mexican-congress-sinaloa-state-congress/
  51. http://www.cyberwarnews.info/2011/11/14/ministry-of-economy-mexico-hacked-by-sec404/
  52. http://www.cyberwarnews.info/2011/11/14/unit-of-transparency-and-access-to-public-information-website-hacked/
  53. http://www.cyberwarnews.info/2011/11/14/national-commission-of-physical-culture-and-sport-hacked-and-accounts-leaked/
  54. http://nakedsecurity.sophos.com/2011/11/14/hacked-sky-news-twitter-account-james-murdoch-arrested/
  55. http://news.softpedia.com/news/Anonymous-Attacks-Anonymous-For-Being-Trolls-234949.shtml
  56. http://nakedsecurity.sophos.com/2011/11/16/facebook-explains-pornographic-shock-spam-hints-at-browser-vulnerability/

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